Americans Are Using Less Electricity Today Than A Decade Ago

Recently, SCANA Corporation, a major utility company in South Carolina, announced it is suspending construction on two nuclear power plants. Part of the problem was spiraling costs to complete the project. But another equally important reason was that the demand for electricity has not increased the way planners expected when the project was first proposed in 2008. That’s not surprising. A new report reveals that demand for electricity in US homes all across America is down from what it was 10 years ago.

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This startling finding seems counterintuitive, given the rise in the number of appliances and digital devices in American homes over the last decade, but major advances in efficiency — especially in flat-screen televisions — as well as a shift to smaller and smaller devices for much of our entertainment — TVs to laptops to tablets and smartphones — mean less total electricity is being used even though the number of items powered by electricity has increased substantially. Overall, residential electricity sales declined 3% from 2010 to 2016, and 7% on a per capita basis according to data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

Americans are watching less TV, preferring laptops and tablets instead. The use of smartphones, which use very little electricity, is also rising. Although people are spending more time online, they are using Chromebooks and tablets more frequently, both of which use less electricity than the dinosaurs that used to take up space in our living rooms. ENERGY STAR–rated appliances represent another area in which the items we rely on for refrigeration, washing, and drying of clothes use less electricity than their predecessors.

The EIA says residential energy use will likely increase in the coming years as Americans adopt more and more digital devices that need to be plugged in. The finding by the agency does not address the energy needed to power the cloud computing centers run by Google, Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and other large internet companies, however, because that is deemed commercial versus residential use. Yet many of those companies are now using renewable sources to meet their electrical need rather than relying on the traditional electrical grid.

One factor the EIA findings do not address is the demand for electricity needed to recharge electric vehicles in the future. Some alarmists are predicting electric cars will overload the grid, causing it to fail. Those Cassandras are usually funded by the Koch brothers, Exxon, etc.

Demand for electricity overall should increase as the electric car revolution takes hold, but the good news is that utility companies more and more are turning to renewables like solar and wind to meet the needs of their customers in the future.

 

Source: CleanTechnica

Rollomatic previews EMO Hannover 2017 offerings

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Industry 4.0/Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) connectivity technologies to dominate 2017 show.

Rollomatic S.A., based in Le Landeron, Switzerland, is one of the companies setting a course for an interconnected future for machinery. Precision is still a top priority, but monitoring machinery and production processes from anywhere in the world are growing more important.

September 18-23, 2017, manufacturers and technology companies will meet in Hannover, Germany, at the EMO Hannover 2017 trade show to see the latest innovations, including Internet-assisted tool-grinding.

Connectivity will allow manufacturers call up the status of a grinding machine while it is in operation, making sure that it is running smoothly from any computer connected to the Internet or company network.

Rollomatic plans to demonstrate key innovations, showing how easy it is to set up communication between the Rollomatic RMonitor and RConnect systems. RMonitor is monitoring software that can be used to check the efficiency of production. The system visualizes the status and historical performance of machinery and reports any needed preventative maintenance steps.

RConnect software links to an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system, i.e. via OPC, and offers the opportunity to analyze production statistics and plan processes.

Other Rollomatic products to be displayed in Hannover include:

  • LaserSmart 501

Aluminum and lightweight materials such as carbon-reinforced-plastic and titanium alloys are part of everyday business in the aviation and automotive industries. Tools fitted with PCD, CVD, or CBN, and increasingly those with monobloc designs, are especially suited to withstand the abrasiveness of fiber-reinforced plastics and the difficulty of machining tempered steel and other extremely temperature-resistant materials. The LaserSmart 501 can machine PCD/CVD/CBN tools, supporting extremely sharp and clearly defined cutting edges.

Damien Wunderlin, head of marketing and sales at Rollomatic SA, says, “In the past, key features of a PCD tool, such as its circular land chip breaker edges, had to be produced on separate machinery after eroding. The new LaserSmart 501 completes the entire process in a single clamp.”

  • GrindSmart 629XS, 629XW

Six-axis grinding machines enable grinding wheels to be inclined during grinding, allowing for even larger relief angles and complex tool geometries to be ground. For spherical milling-cutters or partial radii , the sixth axis enables the grinding point to remain constant during the relieving operation and offers better surface finish and more accurate geometric precision.

“We have integrated a self-centering system into the grinding machines, which goes about its work entirely without any adjustment by the operator. Another new development is the addition of extra wheel packs in the wheel changer for the GrindSmart 629XW,” Wunderlin says.

Rollomatic grinding machines come with integrated measuring equipment that provides important data on the success of a grinding process via 3D probing of the tool. Contactless measurement, done without operator intervention, make it possible to compensate for anomalies triggered by sudden temperature fluctuations or incipient grinding wheel wear. Elliptical is the new round If a perfectly round circumference is a major quality feature of shaft-mounted tools, the situation is often somewhat different in the case of stamping and forming tools. “Requests from our customers have shown that demand for elliptical and non-round tools, for example, is growing. That’s why we have integrated the newly patent pending process in the 5-axis

  • ShapeSmart NP5 pinch and peel grinding machine

 The 5-axis machine design, coupled with SmartPunch technology, can grind non-round punches, threading tools, and stamping and forming tools with complex shapes.

Rollmatic will be at Stand H12, Hall 6 at EMO 2017.

 

Source: AEROSPACE MANUFACTURING AND DESIGN

New Toyota-Mazda plant will bring Corolla output to USA, not Mexico

Japanese automakers Toyota and Mazda confirmed plans Friday to build a $1.6 billion U.S. assembly plant that would create up to 4,000 jobs as part of an extensive new alliance. Toyota said it would make the Corolla sedan at the factory instead of in Mexico as previously intended.

The sweeping partnership between the two companies includes investments in each other and collaboration on development of electric vehicles and self-driving car technology.

The deal marks a symbolically significant shift for Toyota after the company faced withering criticism from President Trump for its plans to locate Corolla production at a $1 billion factory under construction in the state of Guanajuato in central Mexico.

Toyota said Friday that it would maintain its investment and hiring plans at the Mexican plant, but it will locate additional production of the Tacoma midsize pickup at the Mexican factory instead of the Corolla compact car, which had been set to move there from an operation in Ontario, Canada.

The U.S. factory is set to open by 2021. The companies have not picked a location, which is likely to trigger a bidding war between states seeking to spur economic development.

Trump swiftly heralded the move. “A great investment in American manufacturing!” he tweeted Friday morning.

The Toyota-Mazda plant set to be built at an unidentified location by 2021 would be only the third new U.S. vehicle assembly plant since 2011.

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Toyota spokesman Scott Vazin said the company would continue to make the Corolla at its Mississippi manufacturing plant as well, and no changes are planned there.

The new plant will offer Mazda its first U.S. production since the company ended local manufacturing in recent years after its transition out of Ford ownership.

Mazda said it would make crossover models at the plant for sale in North America. Currently, all Mazda cars sold in the USA are made in other countries, according to Barclays.

Taken together, the plans are likely to be trumpeted as a victory for Trump’s push to manufacture more locally sold vehicles in the USA.. He had threatened Toyota and other car companies for selling cars to American customers that were built elsewhere.

“NO WAY!” Trump said in a tweet about Toyota in January. “Build plant in U.S. or pay big border tax.” A border tax was never enacted.

Toyota and other car companies vocally opposed Trump’s plans to pursue sweeping changes to the North American Free Trade Agreement, which bolstered Mexican manufacturing.

The tie-up could pave the way for a broader deal, including possibly a Toyota move to acquire Mazda altogether, which would greatly accelerate industry consolidation for a sector grappling with high regulatory and technology costs.

“Today’s agreement is a testament to the positive result of two years of collaborative and deliberate discussions between the two companies, and it is a milestone in the journey to further strengthen and accelerate the partnership,” Toyota and Mazda said in a statement.

As part of the deal announced Friday, Toyota is acquiring 5% of Mazda, while Mazda is acquiring 0.25% of Toyota.

In that respect, the deal resembles the global alliance between Japanese automakers Nissan and Mitsubishi and French automaker Renault.

“Toyota and Mazda have been working more closely together, so it is no surprise they will have a plant together,” Autotrader.com analyst Michelle Krebs said, adding that Mazda had been searching for U.S. manufacturing capacity.

 

Source: USA TODAY

THE EFFECTS OF HARD WATER ON REVERSE OSMOSIS FILTRATION SYSTEMS

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Anti-Bacteria Sediment Polypropylene PP Filter Cartridge

Reverse osmosis (RO) can be one of the best ways to treat water for residential and light commercial facilities. But, there can be issues that exist after a RO unit is installed. One issue that arises is the challenges presented with hard water. During the filtration process, hard water can cause scale, making it extremely difficult for RO’s membrane to work and the result is lower quality of water.

Hard water is the result of having high mineral content, usually calcium and magnesium ions. The dissolved rock causes scale, which has been found to impede appliance performance and result in energy inefficiencies and increased utility costs.

“Hardness can cause scaling of the membrane, which over time will defeat the whole purpose,” explains Steve Fox of NEXT Filtration Technologies Inc. “It will reduce the output of the membrane itself and it will reduce the quality of water that the membrane is putting out. Essentially, it slowly kills the membrane.”

Replacing membranes too frequently can be expensive over time. Dealers should, therefore, seek the foundation of the issue for answers. Also, sharing this valuable information with customers is key.

According to Pam McDowell of Scalewatcher, it”s the sticky calcium molecules that affect a RO system. “Calcium in the water is like cholesterol in your blood stream,” notes McDowell. “It sticks to everything, binds, hardens and thickens as more collects. On a RO membrane, the calcium molecules block the membrane, making backwashing necessary on a regular basis.”

While McDowell goes on to say that it is necessary to replace the membranes of an RO system from time-to-time, it”s the dealer”s job to provide customers with a system that will last as long as possible.

How to reduce water hardness before RO

Testing is the best way to deal with water hardness before installation. RO systems are designed to create a lot of pressure to a certain solution to separate out heavy minerals. Knowing what types of minerals are in the water can help when installing a system.

“As with any water treatment system, following the manufacturer”s installation is the most important part of the installation,” notes McDowell. “The second important part is knowing your water. If you know that you have a specific issue such as iron, an iron filtration system should be installed in tandem with the RO.”

After installation, it”s always best to continue to monitor the water to make sure scaling isn”t becoming a major problem in the RO system. If you are changing the membranes of your RO system quite frequently, McDowell suggest that it may be time to find another system and/or hardness solution.

“Carbon filters may be used to remove chlorine, which can have a negative effect on TFC (thin film composite) and TFM (thin film material) membranes,” notes Jan de Baat Doelman, president of Scalewatcher. “Carbon pre filters are not used if the RO system contains a CTA (cellulose tri-acetate) membrane.”

Ion exchange is commonly used to soften water. During ion exchange, hard water is passed through a cylinder filled with resin beads that have been saturated with sodium. When this happens, the hardness ions are attracted to the resin and the sodium ions are released.

Fox adds that softening and ion exchange are used for the removal of hardness ions and that RO can be effective as well, but not if you”re trying to protect its membrane.

Going green

One of the major downfalls of having hard water and its effects on a RO system is that it is not very energy efficient. The minerals that clog the RO and cause scaling make the RO unit work even harder, waste water and run up the utility bill. There are ways to prevent this from happening and in return help the environment.

“The amount of water that”s wasted, the discharge issues that we”re facing all over this country and really all over the world have become serious enough that the water treatment industry is paying attention to the need to reduce discharge, save water and be more environmentally friendly,” asserts Fox. “I would like to see more of a focus on the need to become more efficient on the waste specifically — hopefully eliminating any chemical discharge in the widespread use of reverse osmosis.”

There is little doubt that RO has been an effective filtration technology for several decades. While it does have its waste and energy drawbacks, there are fewer more efficient and practical innovations available at this time for residential and light commercial use. As companies continue to go green with solutions for hard water and scale reduction, the focus will become more conscious of end users, the environment and the bottom line.

 

Source: Water Technology Online

E-tech Machinery, Inc. Launching CNC Conversational Cylindrical Grinders

CNC Angular Type Cylindrical Grinder
CNC Angular Type Cylindrical Grinder

Taking a comprehensive view of the worldwide machine tool market, it’s an industry that demonstrates a tendency towards speed, practicality, precision and diversity. With years of providing excellent services to well-known machine tool companies under OEM and ODM agreements, while utilizing the latest innovative technologies in our full range of grinding machine product lines, E-tech Machinery, Inc. thrives in the competitive global market since its founding in 2009.

E-tech is continuing to develop new type machine. The new CNC Conversational Cylindrical Grinders featuring superb grinding ability, rigid box-type Meehanite machine bed and a user-friendly conversational program. With a choice of plunge type or angular type wheel heads, various applications can be resolved with our inclusive solutions.

CNC Conversational Cylindrical Grinders are specifically designed for small to medium size work pieces. An on-line gauging device with gantry type auto loading/unloading system and customized fixture/chuck can be equipped on demand to increase efficiency in mass production. CNC Conversational Cylindrical Grinders possesses even more remarkable features with delicate, caring designs. The tailstock hardened alloy steel sleeve is housed in the well-structure casting. Air-float designed for light and smooth movement. Oil bath lubrication also ensures high accuracy for the tailstock. Our conversational system is built on Fanuc controller with explicit custom/graphic system. It is capable of carrying out auto-dressing with compensation for OD/End Face/Form grinding. Parameters can be saved and reused for multiple grinding cycles.

E-tech CNC cylindrical grinders are not only advantageous to precise grinding, efficiency and productivity, but also are designed for easy maintenance, stability and long serving life. It is clear that e-tech cylindrical grinders are the most suitable machine for mold, auto-parts, aerospace and electronics industries.

 

Source: Business Wire

SIGMA CNC Won the Taiwan Excellence Award of 2016

SLG-3HS – CNC High Precision Double Column type Profile Grinding Machine
SLG-3HS – CNC High Precision Double Column type Profile Grinding Machine

SIGMA CNC Technology Machinery is a specialized CNC machining center manufacturer. With scientific management, we strive for high efficient production, stable quality control, complete sales and after-services of machines.

The Grinding Machine is designed with 3 Grinding spindle Heads (2 vertical grinding spindle and 1 horizontal grinding spindle), SIGMA CNC structure Patent and totally with 7 axial by CNC control.

The main purpose of design is to grinding three surfaces in one process for Rails’ Profile that could save time & cost, reduce the grinding errors and improve the efficiency of grinding for Operators and Customers.

In addition, this machine’s outline design is based on mechanical aesthetics and ergonomics that give greater perception and more convenient operations for operators and customers.

This grinding machine is Custom-Made by customer’s request that could grinding any kinds of rails, widely suitable for machine tools, industrial robots, electronic equipment industry, logistics rails, automotive rails and linear motors etc.

This patented grinding machine is a two-column-type, multi-axis simultaneous servo-controlling moving, three-grinding- heads mechanism. This machine can be vastly used in the important six areas: tool machinery, industrial robotics, electronic factory equipment, cargo-transportation rail, car-used rail, and linear motor. This machine features with:

  1. Simultaneously multi-face grinding, position error can be eliminated.
  2. Door-type high stability structure, very small vibration and deformation.
  3. High extension ability- fitted for grinding different rails with a wide range variation in length when it matches with a proper size bed.
  4. Simultaneously 7-axis servo-control grinding- providing the whole-length as well as whole-face sub-micro-level grinding of the work piece, largely reducing time and saving money.
  5. Unique and fashion design all over the world.
  6. Design under the consideration of humanity, ergonomics, and safety.
  7. High usability design with ergonomic consideration. Providing safe and convenient work piece loading and unloading. Humanizing HMI design- the control box is adaptive in its height and can be arbitrary rotated into a suitable and comfortable position.
  8. Fashionable and aesthetic form design, leading the tool machinery industries all over the world.

Further information, please feel free to visit our website to learn more about SIGMA High Precision Grinding Machine

Laser robot system reduces remote welding time

Technology has uses in welding thin sheets and dissimilar materials

High-power and high-beam-quality solid-state lasers, such as the thin-disk laser and fiber laser, have made laser welding popular in manufacturing industries. More recently, kilowatt direct-diode lasers have become commercially available with beam quality competitive to thin-disk or fiber lasers because of a laser beam combining method called wavelength beam combining, by which beam quality can be maintained without deterioration when power scaling. Replacing CO2lasers, these solid-state lasers are becoming the main players in the field of remote laser welding.

Remote laser welding (RLW) is characterized by a long focal length and a fast-moving laser spot on a workpiece, generally by a pair of mirrors called a scanner. The weight of the scanner is said to be over 30kg, making it necessary to use a heavy load robot. This article reports a newly developed Laser Processing Robot Integrated System Solution (LAPRISS) with a compact laser welding head for RLW, and shows several applications.

LAPRISS technology

FIGURE 1 shows the main components and connection of this system, including a 4kW direct-diode laser scaled by wavelength beam-combining technology and a newly designed trepanning type of laser welding head mounted directly on a robot manipulator. Robot motion and laser oscillation, including its power and irradiated laser pattern on the workpiece, are controlled by a robot controller.

FIGURE 1. The main components and connection of the LAPRISS system are shown.
FIGURE 1. The main components and connection of the LAPRISS system are shown.

In the laser welding head, two parallel optical plates are driven independently by two servo motors to change the optical paths and form different types of irradiated laser patterns on a workpiece. The laser welding head is designed to weigh less than 5kg, making it possible to be carried with a light load robot.

Decreasing cycle time

Cycle times by RSW and LAPRISS were evaluated on 0.8mm-thick mild steel, with the nugget diameters of RSW and the circle diameter in LAPRISS both set to 4mm. FIGURE 2 shows welding times of each action and tensile shearing test results, where the average times for welding are 2.85 and 0.675 sec in RSW and LAPRISS, respectively, and the cycle time of LAPRISS is one-quarter that of RSW.

FIGURE 3. Cycle times (a, b) and tensile shearing (c) test results of lap joints by RSW and LAPRISS are compared.
FIGURE 2. Cycle times (a, b) and tensile shearing (c) test results of lap joints by RSW and LAPRISS are compared.

Assuming, for example, that the total number of welding spots in a car body is 3500–7000, total welding time could be reduced from 10,000–20,000 sec to 2400–4800 sec. There are no differences in tensile shearing strength between RSW and LAPRISS—both of the joints fractured in the base metal near the heat-affected zone (HAZ).

Increasing weld gap tolerances

When using laser welding in thin sheet applications like automotive manufacturing, many parts are produced by shearing or press. So, increasing the gap tolerance becomes important, especially when joining high-strength steel parts because of their large spring-back during the press process.

One method to compensate for wide-gap weld tolerance is spiral-scanning the laser beam on a workpiece from one point and then scanning it to draw a circle, with the circle diameter increasing gradually. During spiral scanning welding, the robot stops at one point and after finishing one weld, the robot moves to another point.

FIGURE 3 shows welding results with circle scanning and spiral scanning. In the case of circle scanning, burn-through occurred because of the shortage of molten metal. The maximum gap tolerance was only 0.3mm. On the other hand, the maximum gap tolerance of spiral scanning welding reached 0.5mm. Spiral scanning welding is useful in replacing RSW because the cycle time can be reduced by 25%.

FIGURE 4. A comparison of joints by circular and spiral scanning welding.
FIGURE 3. A comparison of joints by circular and spiral scanning welding.

Spin scanning welding

This method involves irradiating a laser beam on a workpiece and then scanning it to draw a circle with a same diameter during robot motion. The irradiated laser track on a workpiece resembles a projection of spring on a plane. The size of the molten pool is determined by the scanning circle diameter by changing this circle size, so many weld beads with different widths can be obtained.

Spin scanning welding was evaluated in a butt joint with 0.8-mm-thick mild steel. The laser spot on the workpiece was set to the contact surfaces of two plates, or with an offset of 0.2mm perpendicular to the welding direction.

FIGURE 4 shows welding conditions and test results. When a pre-gap is 0mm, the permitted offset was only 0.2mm by conventional laser welding (line), but it could be increased up to 0.5mm with spin scanning welding. When a pre-gap increases to 0.2mm, the permitted offset was 0.9mm by spin scanning welding, which is nearly 9X that of conventional laser welding (0.1mm). Spin scanning welding is useful in replacing arc welding, and the weld speed can be increased by 2–3X.

FIGURE 5. Joints by conventional laser welding (line) and spin scanning welding are shown.
FIGURE 4. Joints by conventional laser welding (line) and spin scanning welding are shown.

Prospective future applications

In addition to welding thin metal sheets, LAPRISS can also be used for joining dissimilar materials to produce a lightweight structure design, for example, in the automotive industry. A laser rivet process is proposed to replace conventional thermal joining processes, where the main problem is the formation of intermetallic phases from different alloy elements.

FIGURE 6. A laser rivet process can join steel to aluminum, resin, or CFRP.
FIGURE 5. A laser rivet process can join steel to aluminum, resin, or CFRP.

FIGURE 5 shows the principle of the laser rivet and a sample for joining steel to aluminum, generally considered difficult or impossible by conventional thermal processes. This laser rivet process may also be useful for joining steel and other non-metal materials like resin and carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP).

 

Source: Industrial Laser Solutions Magazine

 

 

Chinese, South Korean, Indian apparel makers landing in Ethiopia

Young, low-wage labor attracting garment companies from around world

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Ethiopia is fast developing into a dynamic apparel-sourcing hub as low labor costs lure international clothing makers to the African nation.

Manufacturers from China, South Korea, India and other countries have opened new plants in the continent’s second most populous nation while a growing number of European and U.S. brands are sourcing garments there.

A significant factor in Ethiopia’s emergence on the clothing scene is the planned opening of a new railway line to a port in neighboring Djibouti, located on the Horn of Africa in the Arabian Sea. The railway will facilitate transport of goods from the landlocked country’s industrial areas, like the Bole Lemi Industrial Park, an hour’s drive from the capital Addis Ababa.

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Opened in 2015, the sprawling 150-hectare park is bustling with Chinese, Taiwanese and South Korean production facilities, conveniently clustering factories for textiles, apparel products and leather shoes in one area.

At a factory operated by Shin Textile Solutions, a South Korean company, workers sit at long rows of machines sewing mainly sportswear. According to the general manager, the plant’s entire output is exported, with about 60% going to Europe, 20% to the U.S. and the remainder to Asia.

Japan’s Fast Retailing, which manufacturers and sells casual clothes under the Uniqlo brand, is among the many apparel makers that has shown interest in the plant, the manager said.

Drive to industrialize

Ethiopia’s main exports currently include coffee, gold and leather products, but the government is stepping up efforts to develop new industries. Arkebe Oqubay, special adviser to Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn, has pledged to transform Ethiopia from a farm economy into an industrial powerhouse.

As part of its efforts to turn the country into an thriving, middle-income economy by 2025, the government has been building industrial parks. The newest is Hawassa Industrial Park, a one-hour flight from the capital. Among the 15 companies with manufacturing facilities there is PVH, a U.S. apparel company.

PVH’s 280 employees produce garments for a number of international brands including Calvin Klein, then exports them to Europe and the U.S.

Ethiopia’s low labor costs make it an attractive garment-sourcing destination, according to the company. The average monthly pay for a factory worker is about $50, compared with $140-160 in Kenya, $70-90 in Bangladesh, $150-170 in Vietnam and $400-500 in China.

With a population hovering around 100 million, Ethiopia is the second most populous nation in Africa after Nigeria. The country’s young, low-wage workforce gives it the potential to grow into a major garment-sourcing hub with a vibrant market.

Another factor in favor of the country becoming a bigger manufacturer is its fast-developing infrastructure. The inland nation used to depend heavily on trucking, hindering its transition to a more export-oriented economy. But the new railway connecting Addis Ababa to Djibouti will solve this problem.

The government has built a distribution center in the Addis Ababa suburb of Mojo, where there is also a train station on the new line. Goods from Ethiopia’s industrial parks will be sent to the Port of Djibouti via the center.

Previously, it took three days to transport goods by truck from Addis Ababa to Djibouti. The railway will cut this to about nine hours.

Attracting more business

Currently, companies targeting Ethiopia are mostly apparel makers and other light industry players. But General Electric plans to manufacture medical equipment in the country, and Samsung Electronics is working with a local partner to produce printers.

Meanwhile, Hyundai Motor reached an agreement with a local company in May regarding construction of a plant to assemble commercial vehicles.

China has also been a leading investor in Ethiopia, as in other parts of Africa. The Ethiopian prime minister attended the May international conference on China’s Belt and Road Initiative in Beijing, during which he delivered a speech as the African representative.

The inclusion of Ethiopia at the conference indicates the importance China places on the country as a key regional transportation and production hub.

 

Source: Nikkei Asian Review

Car manufacturers lobby China on EVs

Car manufacturers’ trade associations have asked the China government to relax some of its EV regulations.

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The request has come from the American Automotive Policy Council (AAPC), the European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA), the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA) and the Korea Automobile Manufacturers Association (KAMA).

China says it wants one fifth of all cars sold in China to be electric or hybrid by 2025 and is giving subsidies to local EV manufacturers which are not given to foreign manufacturers.

China is also looking at introducing quotas on foreign car manufacturers from 2018 and, if quotas are not met it is considering banning foreign car manufacturers from importing internal combustion engine cars into China or making non-EV cars in China.

“The proposed rules’ ambitious enforcement date is not possible to meet, and if unchanged would lead to a widespread disruption of the product portfolio of most automakers operating in China. At a minimum, the mandate needs to be delayed a year and include additional flexibilities,” say the trade associations.

The trade associations are asking for equal treatment for subsidies between local snd foreign car manufacturers.

“This preference for domestic automakers over import automakers undermines the environmental goals of the regulation, puts imports at a competitive disadvantage, and risks opening China up to international trade disputes,” the letter said.

China is prioritising EV promotion because of pollution and because it wants to drive down the cost of local EV manufacturing in the hope of giving local manufacturers a competitive edge over foreign EV manufacturers.

It is estimated by McKinsey that 43% of the 870,000 electric cars produced in the world in 2016 came from China with Germany making 23% and the USA making 17%.

 

Source: Electronics Weekly

iPhone 8 expected price in different countries around the world

As the release of the iPhone 8 grows closer, the iPhone 8 price in countries across the world becomes an increasingly interesting topic of conversation. So here ValueWalk examines the iPhone 8 price in some of the key markets for Apple. It should be noted that all of the prices included in this article have been estimated by looking at past pricing and new features that Apple will include. There are certainly no guarantees at this early juncture.

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United States

There is obviously no doubt whatsoever that the key market for Apple is the United States, and so the iPhone 8 price in the US is of critical importance. It is the recommended retail price in the United States that essentially drives the worldwide market, and thus it will be intriguing to see how the smartphone is floated in North America.

Firstly, UBS analyst Steven Milunovich believes that the 64GB model of the iPhone 8 could cost $850, and the premium 256GB version will be the first iPhone to cost four figures at $1,000. This $1,000 figure has since been widely quoted by industry analysts, with many suggesting that the most expensive version of the iPhone 8 will cost approximately $1,099.

This figure had been quoted with such regularity it seemed rather set in stone. But reports have emerged recently which suggest that major carriers such as Verizon and T-Mobile could offer discounts, meaning that the price of the iPhone 8 will be significantly less than $1,000 for consumers. This opinion certainly makes sense, and it would be a good retail strategy for Apple, quite obviously.

However, the writer and blogger John Gruber has suggested that the price for the iPhone 8 could be around $1,200, even for entry-level units. Supply and demand issues will drive this pricing structure, as Gruber explained.

“It sounds to me like the OLED iPhone is a phone which Apple can’t make 40 million of per quarter, at least not today. And if that’s true, that means it should be more expensive. Not should in any moral sense, but simply because that’s how the principle of supply and demand works. When supply is constrained and demand is high, prices go higher. The higher prices alleviate demand,” Gruber commented on his podcast.

So what we can conclude about the iPhone 8 price in the United States is that it will be in excess of $1,000, and possibly quite significantly in excess of this figure.

United Kingdom

As British consumers will be only too aware, the price of consumer electronics in the UK is often significantly more expensive than the United States. Indeed, despite the fact that the dollar has been less valuable than sterling for a considerable period of time, the prices in the US dollar market for consumer electronics items often translate directly to Sterling equivalents.

This would mean that the iPhone 8 price in the UK could be as much as £1,200, and at least £1,000. However, this would seem to be a little too hefty even for a company with the brand and market penetration of Apple. So perhaps a more realistic price point for the British market could be £950.

Pakistan

The price of the iPhone 8 in Pakistan is dependent on a significantly more volatile market than the United States or other western countries. Currently, $1,000 translates to 105,220 Pakistani Rupee. So we can reasonably expect the iPhone 8 to retail in this ballpark in Pakistan.

Canada

The Canadian dollar has been somewhat weaker than the United States currency for some time, meaning that the exchange rate is currently in favour of the world’s reserve currency. An iPhone 8 price in the United States of $1,000 would currently translate to a Canadian price tag of around $1,270.

However, in common with the United Kingdom, we can expect to see a small markup on the price tag in Canada, meaning that the iPhone 8 could retail at around $1,300 in this North American nation.

Australia

The iPhone 8 price in Australia is difficult to predict. Australia is certainly western in nature, but the distance between the country and Apple’s primary marketplaces mean that the RRP of the smartphone could diverge significantly. The current exchange rate for $1,000 translates to 1283 Australian dollars, but we could easily see this figure exceeded when the iPhone 8 launches. Perhaps a more reasonable estimate for this territory would be around AU$1400.

India

Of all Asian subcontinental nations, India is undoubtedly the most important and advanced economically. Considering the vast one-billion population in the country, the iPhone 8 price in India is of particular importance to Apple. $1,000 in the United States currently translates to 64,309.20 Indian Rupee, but again the volatility of the Indian market it may mean that the price is significantly higher than this.

Some sources have suggested that the iPhone 8 Price in India will instead be around rs.70,000.

Japan

The enthusiasm that the Japanese have for all forms of electronics and technology means that the country is a key smartphone marketplace. Currently, $1,000 translates to 112,400.00 Japanese Yen in Japan, indicating another massive exchange rate. However, Japanese consumers are accustomed to obtaining excellent deals for consumer electronics paraphernalia, and thus we can reasonably expect the iPhone 8 to retail at around this 112,000 Yen figure in Japan.

China

Finally, the world’s most populous nation, and now its largest economy, is undoubtedly a critical region for any consumer product. Apple has based its growth in recent years on significant market penetration into China, and will thus value the East Asian nation extremely highly in the iPhone 8 generation.

With numerous iPhone 8 mock-ups already available in China, we can expect an affordable price point for the Chinese marketplace. Therefore, the iPhone 8 price in China may be around 6750 Yuan.

Regardless of the unit price, the fact that the tenth generation iPhone 8 is expected to deliver a wide variety of new features in order to acknowledge this landmark should be enough to guarantee excellent sales worldwide.

 

Source: ValueWalk